Vehicle-To-Load Charging (V2L): The Complete Guide For The UK

Vehicle-To-Load Charging (V2L)

Electric Cars: The Basics

For those of you new to zero-emission electric driving, we recommend a read of the following articles:

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Though the primary role of an electric vehicle (EV) is transportation, it is now clear that an electric vehicle will also be leveraged for a lot more than just driving, given the advantages of the onboard high-voltage EV battery. An area that is fast developing with the latest pure electric cars is bidirectional charging, and in particular, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), Vehicle-to-Load (V2L), Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V). Bidirectional charging allows a two-way electricity flow.

Though, each of the above have commonalities, each is different in operation and requirements. This article is an introductory article on Vehicle-to-load (V2L) in regards to electric cars. V2L functionality is still at an early stage in electric vehicles, with only a few passenger electric vehicles and commercial electric vehicles (i.e. electric vans) incorporating this functionality. However, expect this to become more widespread, as the electric driving market matures further.

It is clear from our experience of vehicle ownership over the past many decades, that, the majority of the time vehicles are parked. In fact, some estimates suggest that cars are parked up to 95% of the time. Put another way, cars move only 5% of the time. Conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) petrol and diesel cars did not offer an opportunity to leverage the ‘parked time’. However, electric cars, to include battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), can be leveraged to benefit the user during the ‘parked time’, but also during the ‘moving time’.

For those new to electric driving, both BEVs and PHEVs have an onboard EV battery with stored energy for the propulsion of the vehicle. BEVs, also referred to as pure electric cars, are propelled only with electric power, while, PHEVs combine an internal combustion engine, with an onboard EV battery and electric motor.

In general, a BEV has a much larger onboard EV battery compared to a PHEV. Some of the recent introductions of pure electric cars offer an EV battery larger than 100 kWh. A long way since the introduction of the first generation all-electric Nissan Leaf more than a decade ago.

More recently, automotive manufacturers like Hyundai, have been keen to adopt V2L technology in their platforms. Hyundai first introduced V2L technology on its dedicated electric vehicle platform, E-GMP (Electric Global Modular Platform). We expect other OEMs to follow suit and also incorporate V2L as standard in upcoming electric cars.

Overview: Vehicle-to-Load (V2L)

Vehicle-to-Load (V2L) Electrical Socket
Vehicle-to-Load (V2L) Electrical Socket
V2L: Overview
What is Vehicle-to-Load (V2L) charging?V2L charging is a bidirectional functionality allowing an electric vehicle (EV) to use its onboard high-voltage EV battery to charge or power devices/ appliances. It is also sometimes referred to as Vehicle-to-Device (V2D). Depending on the type of device/ appliance that needs to be charged or operated, V2L can be used while the EV is moving or parked. As an example, a laptop can be charged or used when an EV is parked or moving, while a lawn mower can only be charged or used when the EV is parked. V2L is a less complicated technology, compared to V2G, which requires interaction with the National Grid. V2L does not interact directly with the grid infrastructure. V2L cannot be used for powering your home or office.
What are the benefits of V2L charging?V2L charging offers a number of benefits. Some of these include: convenience and financial savings. V2L offers advantages, such as, using an electric van as a mobile office to charge and power your laptop, smartphone or power tools. It can also be used for charging or powering devices or appliance for leisure activity, like camping. Apart from powering devices, the EV can also be used to save money, by using energy stored in the EV during cheaper tariff time (usually overnight EV charging) or using electricity generated from solar or wind energy on-site. As price inflation of grid power continues to increase, the potential to save money will only increase. Of course, do keep in mind that these savings are still limited, as V2L is not used for powering the home, but only a few appliances and devices.
What special equipment/ connector/ adapter is required for V2L?The energy stored in the EV battery is DC and first needs to be converted to AC for V2L functionality. This DC to AC conversion is incorporated in the EV. V2L power output is measured in either Amps (A) or Kilowatts (kW) and usually ranges from 10A to 15A or 2.4 kW to 3.6 kW. However, some EVs like the Ford F-150 offer up to 9.6 kW. EVs generally offer one of the two, or both for V2L charging: an onboard AC outlet/socket (inside the vehicle)/ and a V2L adapter (vehicle-to-load connector) to be used with the EV charging port of the EV. For those using the charging port for V2L, it is best to source the adaptor directly from the manufacturer.
What type of appliances or devices can V2L charge?Some examples include: smartphones, laptops, power tools, camping equipment, kettles, microwaves, coffee machines, e-bikes, e-scooters and more!
What are the limitations of Vehicle-to-Load charging?The first, of course, is the amount of energy available to charge or power the devices or external appliances. The energy available will depend on the State-of-Charge (SoC) of the high-voltage EV battery. If the SoC is 20% or below, V2L operation will not be possible. Bottom-line, a charged EV battery is a must for V2L operation. Other limitation factors include: the power required by the device or appliance. As an example, the Hyundai IONIQ 5 can supply AC power up to 3.6 kW (15 Amps). Therefore devices/ appliances that consume more power, will not be compatible for V2L use.
Safety tips on V2L chargingJust like using a domestic socket at home or in the office, safety measures must be adhered to, for the safe operation of V2L charging. Some common sense safety tips include: never operate V2L with wet hands, do not allow the V2L external adaptor to become wet, do not use in rain, do not leave any electrical device or appliance in use unattended, do not disassemble the V2L adaptor, do not operate if there is a foreign substance in the V2L adapter or V2L socket. The above are just some of the safety and hazard tips. We at e-zoomed recommend reading the EV instruction manual in detail before commencing V2L operation.
How many devices/ appliances can be charged or powered simultaneously using V2L?In theory, multiple appliances/ devices can be used simultaneously via a multi-plug power board. However, it is recommended to only use one device or appliance at a time to avoid the risk of an electrical overload. Moreover, a multi-plug power board is not encouraged. Instead, it is recommended to plug the device/ appliance directly into the V2L external adaptor or the V2L socket in the cabin.
Can I use an extension cord with the V2L adapter?In general, the use of an electrical extension board is discouraged. As above, always plug the device/ appliance directly into the V2L external adaptor or the V2L socket in the cabin.

Electric Cars With V2L

Vehicle-to-Load IONIQ 5
Vehicle-to-Load IONIQ 5 (credit: Hyundai)

Though we expect Vehicle-to-load (V2L) capability to become more widespread in the future, the following electric vehicles (EVs) currently offer V2L charging functionality.

Electric Vehicle With V2LType Of Electric Vehicle
MG 4 EVBattery-electric-vehicle (BEV)
MG ZS EVBattery-electric-vehicle (BEV)
MG5 EVBattery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Kia EV6Battery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Hyundai IONIQ 5Battery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Ford F-150 LightningBattery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Genesis GV60Battery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Genesis GV70Battery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Genesis G80Battery-electric vehicle (BEV)
Ford E-TransitBattery-electric vehicle (BEV)

V2L EV cable
V2L EV Cables available via e-zoomed

e-zoomed offers a wide range of high quality EV cables from 2m to 50m. We also offer Vehicle-to-Load EV cables. To buy an V2L EV cable simply follow this link or enquire via

While e-zoomed uses reasonable efforts to provide accurate and up-to-date information, some of the information provided is gathered from third parties and has not been independently verified by e-zoomed. While the information from the third party sources is believed to be reliable, no warranty, express or implied, is made by e-zoomed regarding the accuracy, adequacy, completeness, legality, reliability or usefulness of any information. This disclaimer applies to both isolated and aggregate uses of this information.

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Ashvin Suri

Ashvin has been involved with the renewables, energy efficiency and infrastructure sectors since 2006. He is passionate about the transition to a low-carbon economy and electric transportation. Ashvin commenced his career in 1994, working with US investment banks in New York. Post his MBA from the London Business School (1996-1998), he continued to work in investment banking at Flemings (London) and JPMorgan (London). His roles included corporate finance advisory, M&A and capital raising. He has been involved across diverse industry sectors, to include engineering, aerospace, oil & gas, airports and automotive across Asia and Europe. In 2010, he co-founded a solar development platform, for large scale ground and roof solar projects to include, the UK, Italy, Germany and France. He has also advised on various renewable energy (wind and solar) utility scale projects working with global institutional investors and independent power producers (IPP’s) in the renewable energy sector. He has also advised in key international markets like India, to include advising large-scale industrial and automotive group in India. Ashvin has also advised Indian Energy, an IPP backed by Guggenheim (a US$ 165 billion fund). He has also advised a US$ 2 billion, Singapore based group. Ashvin has also worked in the real estate and infrastructure sector, to including working with the Matrix Group (a US$ 4 billion property group in the UK) to launch one of the first few institutional real estate funds for the Indian real estate market. The fund was successfully launched with significant institutional support from the UK/ European markets. He has also advised on water infrastructure, to include advising a Swedish clean technology company in the water sector. He has also been involved with a number of early stage ventures.

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